Uncovering the myth of “fruit enzyme”

persimmon recently, a wave of “fruit enzyme” swept across China“ The efficacy and practice of “fruit enzyme” has become a hot topic in various network platforms. Typing the four words “fruit enzyme” on the Internet can instantly return more than 8 million search results, which is indeed very popular“ Fruit zyme, with its functions of “losing weight”, “beautifying skin” and “detoxifying”, has become a hot topic for beauty lovers. In addition to its “natural” and “self-made” production methods, it seems that it is just as good to produce “fruit zyme” without making several bottles and cans at home.

so, what is the sacred meaning of “fruit enzyme” and what are these magical effects?

〕 in fact, there are

. Although there are a lot of search results for “fruit enzyme”, careful observation will show that most of these news are repeated explanations of efficacy and production methods, but there is no clear definition of what “fruit enzyme” is. In order to find out what “fruit enzyme” is, let’s take a look at the production method of “fruit enzyme”. The more popular way is to wash and cut the fruit into pieces, mix a certain proportion of sugar and water, put it into the container, seal the mouth, and put it in a cool place for a week or two. The liquid obtained is “fruit enzyme”.

but do you, especially those from Sichuan, feel that this process seems familiar? If you change fruits into vegetables and add some salt and pepper, it’s a typical Sichuan pickle! The “fruit enzyme” is actually equivalent to the “pickle juice” with more sugar but no salt or pepper.

and for those who have studied biology, seeing the word “enzyme”, they may not feel that “fruit enzyme” is too tall“ The word “enzyme” comes from Japan, while in mainland China, the word “enzyme” has a more well-known name: “enzyme”. Just as strawberry is called “stoy pear” and stands high-end, the “enzyme” imported from Hong Kong and Taiwan has become an Internet star.

so, what are the ingredients in this “fruit enzyme” made by pickle like method?

44555 what does “fruit enzyme” contain? It can be seen from

that this production method of “adding sugar to raw materials, sealed storage” is a kind of natural fermentation in essence. The so-called natural fermentation is a fermentation process in which bacteria are not added artificially, but only rely on the microorganisms carried on the surface of raw materials to reproduce and form a certain colony structure in the production process. Fermentation process is a complex microbial physiological and metabolic process, and the types of substances produced are also more diverse.

according to the online production method, the obtained “fruit enzyme” should be “sweet and sour taste”. The source of sweetness is well understood. It is the sugar added in advance and released by the fruit itself. The sour taste comes from the activity of lactic acid bacteria. In fact, the sourness of pickles and pickles is also due to lactic acid bacteria. Lactobacillus is a kind of bacteria that like sugar. Fruit and added sugar provide a comfortable living environment for it, thus a large number of breeding, and constantly transform sugar into lactic acid.

. However, many people reported that the “fruit enzyme” made by themselves has a wine flavor. This is the result of the activity of another microorganism, yeast. Yeast is also fond of sugar. It grows rapidly in the fermentation environment. Some people say that bubbles will be produced when making “fruit enzyme”, that is, the carbon dioxide produced by yeast. However, when the oxygen in the container is exhausted, the yeast begins to produce alcohol, and the taste of the wine is produced.

it can be seen that a bottle of “fruit enzyme” is essentially a mixture of sugar released and added from fruits, lactic acid produced by lactic acid bacteria, or metabolic products such as alcohol, amino acids, vitamins produced by yeast, plus a large number of lactic acid bacteria or yeast cells. There is no essential difference between its composition and pickle juice or wine.

and so on, it seems that there is something missing: where is the “enzyme” in the “fruit enzyme”? In fact, as one of the existing forms of protein, enzymes are released from plant cells and quickly decomposed and absorbed by microorganisms. After all, in the eyes of microorganisms, these fruit enzymes, like other proteins, can be used as nutrients. Therefore, in “fruit enzyme”, the content of enzyme from fruit is very low. More of them are enzymes secreted by microbial activities or released after microbial death. Perhaps it is more appropriate to change the name of “fruit enzyme” to “bacterial enzyme” or “bacterial enzyme”. Even so, the proportion of total protein in the whole fermentation broth is only about 0.02%, and the amount of active enzymes is less.

44555 〕 making your own “enzyme” is a big health risk,

so, since those good wishes can’t be achieved, do it yourself, drink it sour and sweet, and feel comfortable? Although this is a personal hobby, the risks are worth considering.

first of all, “fruit enzyme” production needs to add a lot of sugar, from the online information, the proportion of sugar, fruit and water varies from 1:3:10 to 1:1:5. In other words, “fruit enzyme” contains more than 10% sugar. So much sugar makes the taste “delicious” while virtually increasing the sugar intake.

if it is said that the intake of polysaccharide can be solved by exercise, the next problem is worthy of vigilance. Because “fruit enzyme” uses natural fermentation, the composition of colony is greatly affected by the initial conditions in the fermentation process. In nature, the microbial composition of fruit surface is very complex. In addition to yeast or lactic acid bacteria needed for fermentation, there are other microorganisms including pathogenic bacteria. Once in the process of making a little careless, making the fermentation process of miscellaneous bacteria “King”, then the production of “fruit enzyme” not only can not play a health role, but also pose a threat to health.

in the miscellaneous bacteria pollution, the most attention should be paid to the mold pollution. Some molds, including a variety of Penicillium and Aspergillus, can produce substances called patulin (also known as patulin). Patulin has shown neurotoxicity, embryotoxicity and carcinogenicity in animal experiments, and has inhibitory effect on animal immune system. Although there is no clear conclusion about the harm to human body, the tentative maximum daily intake is 0.4 μ g / kg body weight. In other words, a 70 kg adult should not take more than 28 μ g of zhanpenicillin per day. However, for fruit products (especially apples) contaminated by mold, the content of patulin can reach 1 μ g / g. according to the ratio of fruit and water 3:10 in “fruit enzyme”, drinking 100 ml per day is close to or even more than the provisional maximum daily intake. Therefore, if you see that your “fruit enzyme” grows hairy, you’d better throw it away as soon as possible!

in addition, even if there is no mildew “fruit enzyme”, there is no lack of substances that are not beneficial or even harmful to human health. Nitrite is a harmful substance produced in the fermentation process of “fruit enzyme”. Due to the natural fermentation, the strain is not easy to control, so it will produce more nitrite than inoculated fermentation. During the fermentation process of lactic acid bacteria, nitrite showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing, and the peak concentration reached the peak around one week, and then decreased. About a week is the recommended drinking time for some “fruit enzymes” on the Internet. Although the content of nitrite decreased with the prolongation of storage time, the production of other substances increased with the increase of fermentation time. Fruit contains a lot of pectin, and a major product of pectin fermentation is methanol. In the process of yeast fermentation, the methanol content can reach nearly 20 mg / ml. in the “fruit enzyme” with less strong wine flavor, the methanol content can also reach the level of several mg / ml. In the process of lactic acid fermentation, butyric acid will also be produced – the special smell in pickles and “fruit enzymes” comes from butyric acid.

in the process of industrial production of pickles and pickles, through the selection of strains and the control of production conditions, the production of these substances that are not beneficial to human body or even harmful can be reduced as much as possible. However, for the self-made “fruit enzyme” and pickles and pickles, due to the lack of control of strains and production conditions, the production of these substances can be reduced, Therefore, it is inevitable to produce these unwelcome substances. Although the content of these substances is not enough to make people sick in one meal (except for the contamination of miscellaneous bacteria), it is not worth the loss to drink “fruit enzyme” in order to pursue the unreliable “health care” effect, so as to increase the real health risk. Today, when it is advocated to eat less pickles and pickles, it is no doubt ironic to pursue “fruit enzyme” instead of changing soup and dressing.

44555 conclusion

“fruit enzyme” is a kind of natural fermented product in essence, and it can not achieve all kinds of magical effects claimed by “fruit enzyme” either in principle or in actual composition. At the same time, due to the natural fermentation is not easy to control, it is easy to cause miscellaneous bacteria pollution, produce toxins, and generate other harmful substances. Drinking such “fruit enzymes” will increase health risks. If you really want to get beneficial ingredients from fruits, eating them directly is the most direct and effective way.

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